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Home Management and Decision Making process

 Home Management and Decision Making process

All the members of the family are generally involved in the decision making process in Home Management. In solving various day to day problems in the home, families are constantly faced with situations requiring decisions and action. Various types of decisions are made in the family.

They may be:

(1) Individual decisions

(2) Group decisions

(3) Habitual decisions

(4) Central decisions

(5) Economic decisions

1. Individual Decisions:

This relates to personal problems and needs. Usually these decisions are pertaining to an individual and decisions are made by the person concerned, e.g. when a girl child has passed out from high school, she will think through different alternatives for her higher studies. She may go to the college or sit at home waiting for marriage or search for employment. She can choose the best alternative by her own. So in this case, this is her individual decision. Individual decisions are more quickly made than group decisions.

The decision making of an individual moves round the values, goals and standards. Selection of household equipment or furniture and furnishings are some of the areas where personal or individual decisions are common. Deciding on the methods of saving and investments, types of insurance are the decision taken solely by the male head of the family in most homes.

2. Group Decisions:

These decisions involves not only the different members of the family but sometimes extends to include relatives friends and community. Although some of the decisions in a family originate from individual but there are more decisions in the family which are concerned with the family as an organisation. Group decisions are made from the collective action of several individuals of varying values, goals and standards.

In this case more alternatives are to be suggested. Unproductive approaches are identified and eliminated, because the experience of many people acts as guiding points in the process of selecting the best alternative. The development of group decisions is a slower process. Sometimes conflicts may arise in different situations. Generally group decisions are taken in solving the problems of land and property divisions, decision of family finances, investments and community development programmes.

3. Habitual decisions:

This type of decisions is the lowest level of decisions. Many routine decisions become habits based on established patterns of behaviour. Here the decision and the course of action are combined to form a habit. So much thought and considerations are not involved in these decisions.

They relate to day-to-day activity of cooking, cleaning, washing, looking after children going to office etc. If the mother is busy, the other members of the family can finish her work. The choice is automatic because the criteria are well established and no fresh decisions are involved. Making of tea or coffee in the early morning is an example of habitual decision. In this decision there is no need for choice of alternatives. Once it becomes a habitual choice, the action becomes quick and spontaneous.

4. Central Decisions:

A central decision is a very crucial decision in one’s life, where he has to make careful deliberations and analysis before arriving at the final decision. There are other supporting decisions which would follow to complete the action of central decisions. For e.g. A wife’s employment after the retirement of the husband may be central decision for a family to get additional financial support. Building or purchasing of a house is also a central decision of the family. For each central decision many supporting decisions are to be made to complete the whole decisions.

5. Economic Decisions:

It is based on allocation and exchange process relating to the use of resources. As we have multiple goals with limited resources we are facing many problems for satisfying our unlimited wants. Most families are in a situation how to satisfy their wants with limited resources. Question may arise like which want to be satisfied first and which to be later on? For the proper allocation of resources the families are making many decisions daily.

A family has to utilize the limited resources effectively to achieve goals. Maximizing the output and minimizing the input of resources and getting maximum satisfaction can be possible by economic decisions of the family. Economic decisions are related to saving investment, expenditure and utilization of human and non-human resources.

6. Technical Decisions:

Decisions that fall into this category are goal oriented. These decisions involve weighing of the alternatives. This means choosing the course of action that are sure to meet the desired goal. In cases of health crisis in the families or emergencies one might use this type of decision making. Family decision making is likely to be more complicated than decision making by individuals, but decisions made by groups have the advantage of having been taken after much discussion and thought.

However many decisions made in a family affect all the members of the family. Often decisions taken by a single individual member affect not only that individual but also others in the family. In many families husband and wife may jointly take certain decisions after discussion. In some cases the opinions of children or other members of the family may be taken and may influence the final decision.

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You will be surprised to know these 7 benefits of listening to music, life will change

 You will be surprised to know these 7 benefits of listening to music, life will change

New Delhi [Shubham Kumari/Chawli Komal]. World Music Day 2019: The relationship of music with human life has always been unbreakable. In such a situation, if you want to stay away from stress and happy throughout your life, then establish a relationship with music as soon as possible. Means to say if you like to listen to music, means you always want to be happy. The beauty of music is that you can listen to it whenever you want and then change your mood.

...that's why music is important

Just as we need nutritious food to keep our body healthy, similarly music is needed to keep our soul healthy and positive. No matter how busy you are, we would say that take some time out for yourself and adopt the company of music. The reason, many researches suggest that music has an effect on both our body and mind.

The great scientist Charles Darwin says- 'If I had a life to live again, I would make it a rule to read some poetry and listen to music at least once every week.' Recent research has shown that listening to music keeps a person physically as well as mentally healthy. A research suggests that if you listen to music of your choice, then your mood remains happy and the power of thinking also increases. Not only this, if you are suffering from any disease, then that problem also starts improving gradually. Sangeet means music, by giving 20-30 minutes daily with music, the loneliness and stress of any person is also removed. Let's know 7 benefits of listening to music.

 Removes stress and anxiety

According to experts, listening to music increases the ability to fight diseases. Listening to regular music not only gives peace of mind, but also improves brain function. It also increases our creative potential.

Helpful in high blood pressure and stroke

Listening to music for some time every morning and evening improves the level of high blood pressure, while listening to slow music also removes the problem of stroke. According to a study, there are three nervous systems in music, which provides mental relaxation. In the event of a stroke, listening to slow music in bed provides relief.

Reduces physical and mental pain

Whether the pain is physical or mental, better music is beneficial for humans in both the situations. Especially in case of mental trouble, music works like some magic. A study has found that when music is played to a person in unbearable pain, he forgets to respond to his pain. For example, listening to good music to sick children makes them feel less pain during injections.

Reduces back pain

Listening to slow music can also cause high blood pressure and slow heartbeat. Due to which we are able to breathe more comfortably and better. In a research, it has been found that people who were given music therapy after back surgery, they got great relief in back pain after surgery.

enhances memory

If you listen to slow music of your choice, you have a better memory of what you read. Listening to favorite music reduces the risk of stroke and also improves concentration.

sleep well

If you are struggling with the problem of insomnia, then start listening to soothing music while sleeping. Make a habit of listening to 30-45 minutes of music before sleeping for a sound sleep. Stay away from rock or retro music at night, otherwise the results could be the opposite. Listen to classical music shortly before bedtime, as classical music reduces anxiety by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Relaxes the muscles and removes the distraction of thoughts that hinder your sleep.

music helps in eating less

If soft music is heard during the meal, then the stomach of the eater gets filled quickly. Music makes such people aware that your stomach is full. A research has revealed that music helps in keeping sobriety by reducing calorie intake. Anxiety has a greater desire to eat food containing carbohydrates and fats. As you know, music also relieves anxiety and can help you eat healthy.

These are the benefits of listening to music

Listening to music reduces any kind of inflammation.

Blood flow returns to normal.

The problem of headache goes away.

It also gives relief from blood related and heart related diseases.

Music gives the same benefits in anxiety as taking a two-hour massage.

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Do you know about the factors that can trigger anyone to commit suicide?

 Do you know about the factors that can trigger anyone to commit suicide?

Suicide is a concern all over the world. At present, its increasing number is forcing it to think that why do people take such a step? This situation becomes even more worrying when someone who shows the direction of the society comes under its control. We are telling its trigger points and ways to avoid it.

In trying to prove themselves better or perfect than others, people often fall prey to mental disorders like stress, depression, anxiety, anger. Apart from these mental disorders, uncontrolled emotions can also be responsible for some cases of suicide.

Can the symptoms of suicide be recognized?

It is very important to know that after all, what are the symptoms of a person that he is having thoughts of suicide in his mind. Knowing this is also important because we can save someone's precious life in this way.

Those people who are going through a phase of depression are at the highest risk of moving on the path of suicide. It is a serious mental illness. In which the person remains depressed and negative thoughts keep coming in his mind all the time. Due to which a person starts thinking of ending his life by losing.

The number of people committing suicide in India due to family stress, financial problems, strained relationship or breakup is increasing.

These are some points which can lead any person towards suicide.

Many health problems can cause suicide in people. like:

1. Depression

In simple words, suicidal thoughts and behavior start when a person is suffering from depression. Unable to overcome this disease, he goes astray and concludes that suicide is the only way to get rid of his pain.

2. Anxiety

Many people are unable to cope with problems like financial crisis, family troubles, bad relationships, financial stress and often suffer from nervousness or anxiety. In such a situation, the person is not able to control his panic and takes terrible steps like suicide.

3. Psychiatric disorder

People suffering from psychiatric disorder also easily take steps like suicide. These include drug addicts, people with chronic illness or unbearable pain, people who have witnessed suicide closely and those who have previously attempted suicide.

4. Stress

A more stressful event, often referred to as a precipitating event, leads to suicide. It can take the form of mental illness. It is the cause of about 90 percent of all suicides. Too much stress about something or a situation can trigger suicide in some cases.

5. Isolation

Loneliness brings with it many bad thoughts. Often a person living alone has negative thinking which is said to be the reason for suicide. A person who has been alone for a long time starts thinking that there is no one for him in the world. He is compelled to take terrible steps like suicide.

How to stop suicide?

One should constantly have good conversations with the negative thinking person so that they can avoid thoughts like suicide. Pay attention to the attitude of the people around you and see if nothing is bothering them. Along with this, advise such people to go to a good psychiatrist so that they can talk about their problem.

Psychiatrist Dr. Aleem Siddiqui explains that when the thoughts of suicide come, then the person tries to share the grief with someone. When there is no way out, he moves towards suicide. That is why keep in mind that by being busy in your work, you do not ignore such a person.

Along with this, there are many suicide helpline numbers in India which can be used to prevent the incidents of suicide.

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Home Remedies for Headache: Headache will go away in minutes, follow these 7 home remedies, use this way

 Home Remedies for Headache: Headache will go away in minutes, follow these 7 home remedies, use this way

Headache home remedies: It is common to have headache in winter. But the whole routine gets disturbed by the headache. Many people take medicines to get rid of this problem. But some people consider it more important to get rid of headache even by adopting easy home remedies.

Instant home remedies for headache : Headache is a very common problem and every third person suffers from headache at some point in winter. But sometimes it is so fast that it becomes very difficult to tolerate it. By the way, there are many types of medicines available in the market, which can give you relief in headache. But taking too much medicine can prove to be harmful for health. In such a situation, it is important that you try home remedies to get rid of headache. With this your headache will also go away and you will not have any side effects. Let us tell you some such home remedies today, by adopting which you can remove your headache in a few minutes. To be honest, these remedies are so easy that you can try them while working in your office and you can drive away the headache.

Acupressure is a panacea for headache

If you often get a headache in winter, then you can use acupressure to relieve headache. In case of headache, bring both your palms towards the front. After this, lightly massage the space between the thumb and index finger of the other hand with one hand. Repeat this process in both hands for 2 to 4 minutes. By doing this you will get instant relief in headache.

drink warm water mixed with lemon juice

If you are out somewhere and you cannot try any home remedy there for headache, then you can try this quick recipe. All you have to do in this is to take hot water in a glass and drink it after adding lemon juice. Then you will see how quickly you get relief from headache. Sometimes, due to the formation of gas in the stomach, headache also starts. Even in that situation, this home remedy is considered very effective.

eat apple with salt

If even after many efforts, your headache is not taking the name of going away, then cut 1 apple and eat it after putting salt on it. This is a very effective remedy to get relief in headache.

Clove will cure headache

Heat a few cloves of cloves on a tawa. Tie these hot clove buds in a handkerchief. Keep smelling this bundle after sometime. You will find that the headache is gradually reducing.

Drink Basil and Ginger Juice

The use of basil and ginger is also effective in getting rid of headache. For this, extract the juice of basil leaves and then extract the juice of ginger and mix it. After that apply it well on the forehead. If you want, this juice can also be given to a person suffering from headache. This gives great relief in headache.

Massage with clove oil

Clove is also used to relieve headache. Clove contains pain relieving properties. Massaging the forehead with clove oil will give you relief from headache within a few minutes.

drink lemon tea

Drinking lemon mixed with tea can also relieve headache. For this, squeeze lemon in tea and drink it.

Disclaimer: This material, including advice, provides general information only. It is in no way a substitute for qualified medical opinion. Always consult an expert or your doctor for more details. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.

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Top 10 Ice Cream Brands in the World

 Top 10 Ice Cream Brands in the World

Ice-creams are the most liked sweeten frozen foods across the world. No matter in which country you reside, you will always be a fan of ice-creams. Be it children, youths, or elders, everyone is a fan of ice-creams.

One thing which makes ice-cream loved by people is its fantastic taste. There are numerous flavors to satisfy everyone’s needs, brought to the world by some amazing brands. But these brands had to earn their spot by supplying consistently good products to existing demand and developing a market for new ones.

Here we have listed the top 10 such ice creams brand in the world:

Ben & Jerry

Ben & Jerry is one of the well-known flavored ice cream brands in the world. The company was started by two friends Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield in the year 1978 in Burlington, Vermont. After 22 years of their venture, they sold their company to Unilever Group.

Currently, Ben & Jerry operates under the same parent brand and runs 577 scoop shops in 38 countries across the world. According to Owler, Ben & Jerry have estimated revenue of $280 Million each year.

The company has a ‘Flavor Graveyard’ outside its Waterside factory with tombstones that represent each of the retired ice creams, a very new concept.

Creative names like Cherry Garcia, Half Baked, Peace pops, and Chunky Monkey, combined with candy and brownie, have caught the consumers’ attention.


Baskin Robbins is the largest ice-cream company with 7500 stores located in around 50 countries across the world. This global company was founded in the year 1946 with the merger of two ice cream shops.

Burt Baskin started this company along with his brother in law, Irv Robbins. It’s why the company was named “Baskin Robbins”.

Both of them had their separate outlets where one was serving 21 flavors, and the other was 10. When these brands are merged, it became a total of 31 flavors together. The brand logo represents those 31 unique flavors. Currently, the company claims to have more than a thousand flavors to serve, making it stand apart from all the other brands in the world.

The company generated approximately $47.42 million in revenue in the United States and 115.37 million in its international locations in 2018.


Haagen-Dazs is a famous American ice cream brand launched in the year 1961. It is a subsidiary of the Nestle Group.

The company started its operations as a retail store in Brooklyn and now has a strong presence in the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, China, New Zealand, India, Brazil, and many more.

Besides ice cream bars and cakes, Haagen-Dazs also deals in frozen yogurt, sorbet, and gelato (an Italian frozen dessert). The brand operates in more than 900 locations across 50 cities, which together accounts for revenue of $44.2 Million.

As per the recent statistics, 2019, 5.85 million Americans consume four or more quarts of Haagen Dazs ice cream in a month.


Walls is yet another well-known ice cream brand which is a subsidiary of Unilever Group. In its initial stages in 1922, the brand emerged as an independent food outlet in England. But it was later acquired by Unilever Group.

Walls have created great space in the minds of every ice-cream lover across the world. Its different taste and quality are loved by a large number of people. This is the reason why it’s one of the leading ice cream brands in the world.

Dairy Queen

Dairy Queen is also among the popular ice creams brand in the world. The brand not only deals in ice-creams, but it also is a chain of fast-food restaurants.

It is the unique soft-serve ice cream brand that was introduced in 1938. The first Dairy Queen store was opened in Joliet, Illinois in 1940.

This well-known is a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. Currently, this brand has over 6,000 outlets located in the United States, Canada, and 18 other countries. According to, the estimated annual revenue of Dairy Queen is $ 3.1 Billion including all its business. However, the total net income of Dairy Queen from ice-creams is yet not known.


Nestle is one of the leading groups of companies in the food and beverage sector.

The Swiss-based brand is popularly known for its chocolates, frozen foods, ice-creams, dairy items, nutrition food items, coffee, and more.

This leading brand was established in 1866 and currently holds five well-known ice cream brands across the world. This includes Nestle Ice-Cream, Nestle Extreme, Haagen Dazs, Moven Pick, and Dreyer’s. Nestlé’s total revenue from its milk and ice-cream division was CHF7 Billion (2018).

Blue Bell Creameries

Blue Bell Creameries was founded in the year 1907 in Texas, United States.

It is among the most significant selling ice-creams across the United States and well-known brand in multiple countries.

The company was earlier known as Brenham Creamery Company, but in 1930, the company was renamed as Blue Bell Creameries. The brand offers 66 different flavored ice-cream products under its domain. According to Zoom Info, Blue bell Creameries’ average quarterly revenue was $1 Billion in 2019.


Breyers is also among the top ice cream brands across the world. It was started in the year 1866 in Pennsylvania, United States.

William A. Breyer, the founder of Breyers, started his business from home, and later sold via horse and wagon on the streets. The company was incorporated in 1900.

In 1926, this brand was sold to National Dairy Product Corporation and to Unilever group in 1993. It is currently the subsidiary brand of Unilever Group and serving ice-creams and frozen desserts.

Having added, “Partnering with American farmers – 100% Grade A Milk & Cream” to its packaged ice cream, people are more committed to lay down their trust in the brand. According to Statista, more than 89% of American consumers consume 1 quart or more of Breyers ice cream in 30 days.

Cold Stone Creamery

Cold Stone Creamery is an American Ice Cream brand launched in 1988. The company’s first outlet was opened in Arizona, which later expanded to different parts of the United States and then different countries.

The brand has the leading presence in the UAE, Brazil, Indonesia, Egypt, Singapore, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Denmark, China, Japan, Thailand, and 13 other countries.

In 2006, the company was also titled the “11th Fastest-Growing Franchise” by Entrepreneur magazine. In May 2017, Cold Stone merged with Kahala Corporation and formed Kahala Cold Stone, and later it was renamed to Kahala Brand (the parent company).

Carte D’Or

Carte D’Or is also among the top ice cream brands which are owned by Unilever Group. The company was first launched in the 1990s in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Since then, it has launched many new flavors for everyone.

Carte D’Or cups and tubs ice-cream, majorly divine chocolate is heavily demanded product. This famous brand’s ice-creams are also found in Walls Stores.

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The World’s Best Luxury Watch Brands

 The World’s Best Luxury Watch Brands

With your life moving faster than ever, keeping track of time is essential. Sure, you can do it with your phone, but why not do it in style, with one of the world’s best luxury watches on your wrist? 

Luxury watches are destined to never go out of fashion. No phone can beat the exceptional elegance and rich history of a beautifully crafted timepiece. Checking the time becomes a rather exciting endeavor with one of these watches.

A proper mechanical watch isn’t just to tell time. A watch from one of the best luxury watch brands in the world is an emotional and financial investment. A treasured possession. And it will most likely go on to become a prized family heirloom. 

Our list of the best watch brands in the world today is here to help you find the watch that’s best for you. This guide was created based on in-depth research to identify the luxury watch manufacturers that enjoy a global reputation for delivering high-quality timepieces. A demonstration of exquisite craftsmanship, incomparable aesthetic sensibility, and a passion for pushing boundaries have distinguished these brands as the best top-tier watchmakers today.

The best luxury watch brands of 2022


Patek Philippe

Audemars Piguet

A.Lange & Söhne



IWC Schaffhausen


Nord green

Vacheron Constantin

1. Rolex

If there’s one watch brand out there that everybody knows, it’s Rolex. The very name has become a byword for luxury and exclusivity. Wearing a Rolex is more than just wearing a watch. It’s a statement of power and prestige. There’s a good reason why people still buy Rolex watches despite the Apple Watch’s dominance in the global industry.

From its classic collection to its dive and yacht-master watches, Rolex applies its decades of horological experience and technical know-how to the question of creating quality swiss timepieces that owners can carry with them all their lives—and pass on to their children. 

Rolex watches have been worn to some of the most remote places on earth; into wild and challenging terrains, down into the depths of the ocean, and up onto lofty mountain peaks. If you needed proof that a Rolex isn’t just a fashion accessory, then this is it. 

The company was the first to patent a waterproof watch: the famous Oyster model. They also brought the first self-winding watch to the market in 1945. A Rolex is also one of the favored timepieces of the world’s most famous spy, James Bond—further evidence of Rolex’s commitment to all things daring and intrepid.

2. Patek Philippe

Switzerland has become synonymous with luxury watches and one of the top Swiss watch brands of all time is Patek Philippe. 

The last family-owned independent watch manufacturer left in Geneva, the company was founded in 1839 and has remained in the hands of the Stern family since then. This continuity of ownership allows Patek Philippe to maintain its unique identity. The brand takes its creative freedom seriously. 

Indeed, it’s Patek Philippe’s unparalleled approach to design that has allowed the swiss manufacturer to achieve status as one of the best watch companies in the world.

Unanimously declared by experts to be responsible for some of the finest timepieces in existence, Patek Philippe watches are created on the basis of decades of knowledge and horological understanding. What makes a Patek Philippe watch so special is the fact that each detail has been finished by hand by a dedicated master craftsman. Just look at the brand’s mechanical chronograph watches to see how far Patek Philippe can push the boundaries of complications. These are also some of the most expensive watches on the planet.

3. Audemars Piguet

Audemars Piguet is one of the most famous high-end watch companies in the world. Created in the Vallée de Joux of the Jura Mountains in Switzerland by Jules-Louis Audemars and Edward Auguste Piguet, AP watches now travel the world on the wrists of the rich and famous, including the likes of Arnold Schwarzenegger, Jay-Z, and James LeBron. 

What secured AP a seat at the table among the most successful global watch brands was its Royal Oak model. Introduced in 1972, the Royal Oak was the first stainless steel sports watch to be marketed as a luxury timepiece, combining style and durability for the first time ever. 

The first customer to buy a Royal Oak was the Shah of Iran. The timepiece has since gone on to become the brand’s flagship model—highly prized and worn by men and women alike. 

While not as much of a household name as Rolex, perhaps, Audemars Piguet offers something else to would-be wearers: a sense of exclusivity that can only come with being slightly under the radar. 

Effortlessly stylish, an AP watch is a demonstration of true creativity and artistry. While many wristwatch brands boast about their level of precision or incredible durability, AP pays just as much attention to impeccable finishes, intricate motifs, and eye-catching engravings. 

4. A. Lange & Söhne

The first German luxury watch brand on our list, at A. Lange and Söhne, excellence and perfection is a priority at every stage of the process. The company prides itself on the dedication of all its workers and their commitment to consistently delivering the best.

At the heart of A. Lange and Söhne is a unique history. Founded in 1845, the company was expropriated after the Second World War. It wasn’t until after the reunification of Germany in 1990 that it would return. 

It was Walter Lange, great-grandson of original founder Ferdinand A. Lange, who opened the doors to business again—launching the company back on its path to watch-making success. 

With an intuitive understanding of aesthetics and an unwavering commitment to precision, A. Lange & Söhne’s designs stand out from the crowd of luxury watches with their distinct appearance that is very different from that of the Swiss watch brands. 

5. Omega

The first brand from the Swatch Group on our list, Omega has been delivering exceptional luxury watches to horophiles and watch collectors for more than 170 years.

Omega watches have traveled to the North Pole, been launched into space, and descended into the depths of the ocean in submarines. As a consequence, Omega has gained a reputation as one of the successful wristwatch brands in the world. 

Founded in 1848 in a small Swiss village under the name Louis Brandt & Fil, the company launched its first series-produced caliber—the ‘Labrador’—in 1885. In 1892 they introduced the world to a minute-repeating watch—the first of its kind. In 1894, they produced the Omega caliber, whose success prompted a change of name to the Omega Watch Company. 

Since then, the pace of success has hardly slowed for Omega. Indeed, Omega watches have broken several precision records. At the 1931 Geneva observatory trials—nicknamed the Olympics of watchmaking—Omega came first place in all six categories. 

6. Jaeger-LeCoultre

If you’re looking for a luxury timepiece that will definitely turn heads, then you have to see the collections of high-end watch brand, Jaeger-LeCoultre. 

Jaeger-LeCoultre is known within the industry for its inventiveness. In fact, JLC has developed over 1,200 individual calibers and holds 400 unique patents—a testament to its capacity for cutting-edge design.

Take, for example, the brand’s Reverso collection, born in 1930 at the peak of the Art Deco movement. With its legendary rectangular design, it’s a horological great—and the perfect unisex watch. 

Or what about the aptly named Grande Complication—known as one of the world’s most complicated watches? The company is also responsible for the world’s smallest mechanical movement, named the Calibre 101. 

7. IWC Schaffhausen

When shopping for a luxury watch, it’s easy to get bogged down in the details: the mechanics and the complex internal workings. But at the end of the day, you also need to ask: does it look good? Does it complement your personal style? 

An IWC Schaffhausen watch is that rare thing: a luxury accessory that marries flawless functionality with exceptional design. 

The International Watch Company (IWC) was founded in 1868 by a Bostonian: Florentine Ariosto Jones. The company created a name for itself by bringing together innovative new American production techniques with the traditional skills of master Swiss watchmakers. The result? World-class watches that stand out both aesthetically and in terms of reliability. 

While the majority of Swiss watch manufacturers are located in the west of the country, IWC Schaffhausen is located in the east, where it makes use of the Rhine river for hydropower.

8. Cartier

When someone says Cartier, your first thought might be jewelry. Indeed, Cartier was famously jeweler to the kings. But this world-renowned designer started off making watches. 

In fact, today, Cartier’s range of luxury watches are some of the most celebrated timepieces on the market and the brand has established itself as a major player within the watch-making industry. 

While you might associate Cartier with tradition and heritage—it is, after all, somewhat of an institution—the brand is eager to upturn convention and push boundaries. In its technologically advanced watchmaking laboratory, the company’s best craftsmen practice little-known and impressive techniques such as gold granulation and grisaille enamel. 

As a result, Cartier’s designs are often unusual with distinct configurations that set them apart from the crowd. The brand is best known for its ‘Tank’ range of watches—now considered iconic by many. 

9. Nord green

Up-and-coming Danish luxury watch brand Nord green is fast becoming a reference for simple yet impactful minimalist design. With Jakob Wagner as its Chief Designer, the brand focuses on the essence of what a watch means for the wearer to create long-lasting and enduring watches. Jakob Wagner is known for his work with Bang & Olufsen and other major Scandinavian brands.

Created in Denmark, Nord green’s watches bring a modern approach to classic Nordic design. They’re also the first affordable watch brand on our list, which deserves a spot in the top ten.

Nord green’s philosophy is centered around social consciousness and being fully carbon-neutral. Any carbon generated throughout the manufacturing or shipping process is offset by planting trees.

We particularly like the brand’s efforts to offer their watches in multiple sizes, from 32mm in their women’s collection up to 42mm for their men’s collection. None of them come across as oversize or opulent, however. These watches are perfectly balanced for a timeless aesthetic. Check our Nord green watches review to see if they could be a good match for you too.

10. Vacheron Constantin

Founded in 1755, Vacheron Constantin is the most established luxury watch brand on this list—and the world’s oldest continuously operating watch-maker. 

With 265 years of horological expertise behind it, this high-end watch brand has plenty of experience in producing quality and aesthetically outstanding timepieces. 

But heritage and tradition only get you so far. Indeed, Vacheron Constantin continues to push creative boundaries and develop its technical capabilities, and is unceasing in its delivery of exceptional luxury watches that owners will wear their whole lives. 

What’s more, the Vacheron Constantin workshop only produces a limited number of pieces. This not only guarantees that each one is made with the highest level of care and attention but also accords the brand with a level of exclusivity that can only come with rarity. Owning a Vacheron Constantin is like being admitted to an elite club.  

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Health benefits of drinking coffee

 Health benefits of drinking coffee

When people think of coffee, they usually think of its ability to provide an energy boost. However, according to some research, it can also offer some other important health benefits. Such benefits may include a lower risk of liver cancer, type 2 diabetes, and heart failure.

Worldwide, experts estimate that people consume around 2.25 billion cups of coffee per day. Researchers have looked at the benefits of drinking coffee for conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver disease. There is evidence to support some, but not all, of these claims.

Health benefits of drinking coffee

Some potential health benefits associated with Trusted Source drinking coffee include protection against type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, liver disease, and liver cancer. Coffee consumption may also support cardiovascular health.

Coffee and diabetes

Coffee may help protect against type 2 diabetes.

In 2014, researchers who gathered data on over 48,000 people found that those who increased their coffee consumption by at least one cup per day over 4 years had an 11% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those who did not increase their intake.

A 2017 meta-analysis Trusted Source concluded that people who drank four to six cups of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee each day appeared to have a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes.

Coffee and Parkinson’s disease

Various studies have suggested that caffeine, which is present in coffee and many other beverages, may help protect against Parkinson’s disease.

One team concluded that men who drink over four cups of coffee per day might have a five fold lower risk of Parkinson’s disease than those who do not.

 suggested a link between coffee consumption and a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, even among people who smoke. This team also found that people who drink coffee may be less likely to experience depression and cognitive conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease.

However, there was not enough evidence to prove that drinking decaffeinated coffee helps prevent Parkinson’s disease.

Coffee and chronic liver disease or cancer

In 2019, a literature review Trusted Source concluded that coffee intake is likely to reduce the risk of liver cancer.

Earlier, in 2015, a cohort study of a multiethnic population in the United States suggested that depending on the dose, consuming two to three cups of coffee daily reduced the participants’ risk of developing extracellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease (CLD) by 38% and 46%Trusted Source, respectively.

The meta-analysis from 2017 Trusted Source also concluded that consuming any type of coffee appears to reduce the risk of liver cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. These findings are now bolstered by a 2021 study Trusted Source suggesting that consuming all types of coffee may offer some protection against CLD.

Learn more about the 2021 study on coffee and liver disease here.

Coffee and other liver diseases

People who consume coffee may also have a lower risk of gallstone disease.

In 2014, researchers looked at coffee consumption among people with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These are autoimmune conditions that affect the bile ducts in the liver.

They found that people with PSC were more likely Trusted Source to have a lower coffee intake than those without the condition. There was no evidence to suggest that coffee intake was different among people with or without PBC.

Also, another 2014 study suggested a link between coffee consumption and a lower risk of dying from nonviral hepatitis-related cirrhosis. The researchers suggested that drinking two or more cups of coffee every day might reduce the risk by 66%Trusted Source.

Coffee and heart health

The 2017 meta-analysis Trusted Source found that caffeine consumption may have at least a small benefit for cardiovascular health, including blood pressure.

In a 2018 study, researchers found that drinking three to five cups of coffee per day may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by 15%. Drinking one to five cups daily also seemed to be associated with lower overall mortality resulting from any cause.

For those people who have already experienced a heart attack, drinking coffee does not appear to increase their risk of experiencing another or dying as a result.

The 2017 meta-analysis, however, also found that there may be higher levels of blood lipids (fat) and cholesterol in people who consume more coffee. These substances may predispose a person to heart problems.

Coffee and obesity

There is some evidence suggesting that consuming coffee may help people lose weight. One 2018 paper Trusted Source indicated that the more coffee the participants drank, the higher their mean reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass.

A 2019 study Trusted Source suggested that drinking coffee may have a modest association with weight loss, with a greater association in men than in women. However, these results have not been replicated, so they may not be definitive.

Although coffee may provide some benefits in reducing obesity, it is not a substitute for eating a balanced diet and exercising often.

Nutritional value

One hundred milliliters (about 3.3 ounces [oz]) of regular black coffee (without milk or cream) is low in calories. That is about one typical cup of black coffee, and it only contains around 2 calories. However, adding cream or sugar will increase the calorific value.

Coffee beans also contain polyphenols, which are a type of antioxidant. Antioxidants can help protect the body against free radical damage. Free radicals are a type of waste product that the body naturally produces as a result of certain processes.

Free radicals act as toxins in the body and may cause inflammation. Scientists have found links between inflammation and various aspects of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and obesity.

In 2018, some researchers Trusted Source suggested that the antioxidant content of coffee may offer protection from metabolic syndrome.

Although scientists can prove that certain compounds are present in coffee beans, it remains unclear what happens to them once they enter the human body.

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